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The Health Benefits Of Hydroxytyrosol And Tyrosol

Jul 19, 2017

Hydroxytyrosol is mainly found in olive oil. It prevents low density 
lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, platelet aggregation, and inhibits 5- and 
12-lipoxygenases Hydroxytyrosol has also been found to exert an 
inhibitory effect on peroxynitrite dependent DNA base modification 
and tyrosine nitration and it counteracts cytotoxicity induced by 
reactive oxygen species in various human cellular systems. Finally, 
studies have shown that hydroxytyrosol is dose-dependently 
absorbed in humans following ingestion, indicating its bioavailability. 



Studies showed that, when taken orally, hydroxytyrosol is rapidly 
absorbed and subsequently passes through the blood brain barrier 
in relatively large amounts. Hydroxytyrosol accumulates in the 
cerebrospinal fluid; consequently, it has access to the cells in the 
central nervous system. Researchers found an increase of the total 
antioxidant activity of cerebrospinal fluid after oral administration of 
hyroxytyrosol in rats.




Since hydroxytyrosol is a potent antioxidant and monoamine 
oxidase (MAO-B) inhibitor and it can freely enter into the 
cerebrospinal fluid, hydroxytyrosol can be beneficial in Alzheimer's, 
Parkinson's and other neurodegenerative diseases.

In Alzheimer's disease, a chemical called beta-amyloid peptide 
accumulates in brain tissue. This accumulation may lead to oxidative 
stress, and large amounts of cells die leading to the typical 
symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. Glutamate is the major excitatory 
neurotransmitter in the brain, but is also a powerful oxidant. 
Researchers found that hydroxytyrosol protects cells of the central 
nervous system from dying after exposure to these stressors 
(beta-amyloid, glutamate and hydrogen peroxide). In addition, it 
has been known that zinc, copper and iron ions induce the 
formation of beta-amyloid plaques, chelators of these ions may 
solubilize these plaques. Hydroxytyrosol is a chelator of iron, zinc 
and copper ions, and indeed, it also can solubilize beta-amyloid 
deposits. Thus, hydroxytyrosol has a dual neuroprotective action. 
Its neuroprotective effects together with its easy-to-pass the blood 
brain barrier make its benefits in neuroprotection.

In Parkinson's disease large amounts of dopaminergic neurons die 
in the substantia nigra. D
opamine replacement therapy, in the form 
of levodopa supplementation, has been used successfully in the 
treatment of Parkinson's disease. Inhibition of dopamine 
metabolism is a valuable adjunct to exogenous dopaminergic 
replacement. Therefore, inhibit
ors of MAO-B have been used to 
treat early and advanced Parkinson disease for a number of years. 
Evidence raises the possibility that MAO-B inhibition may confer a 
protective effect in Parkinson's disease, delaying the progression of 
the underlying pathology. Researchers found that hydroxytyrosol is 
a strong inhibitor of MAO-B. Therefore, this activity of 
hydroxytyrosol may be of additional use in the treatment of this 
disease. 
Tyrosol is a phenolic compound found in olives. As with 
hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol is a powerful antioxidant and is rapidly 
taken up from the intestinal tract. Moreover, it is capable of passing 
the blood brain barrier in relatively large amounts. Researchers 
detected tyrosol in cerebrospinal fluid of rats which had received 
tyrosol orally. Therefore, tyrosol is very useful in the treatment of 
neurodegenerative diseases where oxidative stress plays an 
important role. Since tyrosol increases the total antioxidant levels of 
the brain, it can be used to treat disorders like Alzheimer's and 
Parkinson's disease. It can also be used to treat stroke and loss of 
memory. 


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