Hydroxytyrosol is mainly found in olive oil. It prevents low density
lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, platelet aggregation, and inhibits 5- and
12-lipoxygenases Hydroxytyrosol has also been found to exert an
inhibitory effect on peroxynitrite dependent DNA base modification
and tyrosine nitration and it counteracts cytotoxicity induced by
reactive oxygen species in various human cellular systems. Finally,
studies have shown that hydroxytyrosol is dose-dependently
absorbed in humans following ingestion, indicating its bioavailability.
Studies showed that, when taken orally, hydroxytyrosol is rapidly
absorbed and subsequently passes through the blood brain barrier
in relatively large amounts. Hydroxytyrosol accumulates in the
cerebrospinal fluid; consequently, it has access to the cells in the
central nervous system. Researchers found an increase of the total
antioxidant activity of cerebrospinal fluid after oral administration of
hyroxytyrosol in rats.
Since hydroxytyrosol is a potent antioxidant and monoamine
oxidase (MAO-B) inhibitor and it can freely enter into the
cerebrospinal fluid, hydroxytyrosol can be beneficial in Alzheimer's,
Parkinson's and other neurodegenerative diseases.
In Alzheimer's disease, a chemical called beta-amyloid peptide
accumulates in brain tissue. This accumulation may lead to oxidative
stress, and large amounts of cells die leading to the typical
symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. Glutamate is the major excitatory
neurotransmitter in the brain, but is also a powerful oxidant.
Researchers found that hydroxytyrosol protects cells of the central
nervous system from dying after exposure to these stressors
(beta-amyloid, glutamate and hydrogen peroxide). In addition, it
has been known that zinc, copper and iron ions induce the
formation of beta-amyloid plaques, chelators of these ions may
solubilize these plaques. Hydroxytyrosol is a chelator of iron, zinc
and copper ions, and indeed, it also can solubilize beta-amyloid
deposits. Thus, hydroxytyrosol has a dual neuroprotective action.
Its neuroprotective effects together with its easy-to-pass the blood
brain barrier make its benefits in neuroprotection.
In Parkinson's disease large amounts of dopaminergic neurons die
in the substantia nigra. Dopamine replacement therapy, in the form
of levodopa supplementation, has been used successfully in the
treatment of Parkinson's disease. Inhibition of dopamine
metabolism is a valuable adjunct to exogenous dopaminergic
replacement. Therefore, inhibitors of MAO-B have been used to
treat early and advanced Parkinson disease for a number of years.
Evidence raises the possibility that MAO-B inhibition may confer a
protective effect in Parkinson's disease, delaying the progression of
the underlying pathology. Researchers found that hydroxytyrosol is
a strong inhibitor of MAO-B. Therefore, this activity of
hydroxytyrosol may be of additional use in the treatment of this
disease. Tyrosol is a phenolic compound found in olives. As with
hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol is a powerful antioxidant and is rapidly
taken up from the intestinal tract. Moreover, it is capable of passing
the blood brain barrier in relatively large amounts. Researchers
detected tyrosol in cerebrospinal fluid of rats which had received
tyrosol orally. Therefore, tyrosol is very useful in the treatment of
neurodegenerative diseases where oxidative stress plays an
important role. Since tyrosol increases the total antioxidant levels of
the brain, it can be used to treat disorders like Alzheimer's and
Parkinson's disease. It can also be used to treat stroke and loss of
control and sourcing team ensure to offer premium quality of Hydroxytyrosol.
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